Kamis, 10 Mei 2012

THE GRAMMAR-TRANSLATION METHOD


A. INTRODUCTION
The Grammar-Translation Method is not new. It has had different names, but it has been used by language teachers for many years. At one time it was called Classical Method since it was first used in the teaching of the classical languages, Latin and Greek. Earlier in this century, this method was used for the purpose of helping students read and appreciate foreign language literature. It was also hoped that, through the study of the grammar of the target language, student would become more familiar with the grammar of their native language and that this familiarity would help them speak and write their native language better. Finally, it was thought that foreign language learning would help students grow.........
This file presented by:
Masnuatul Khoiroh (210910008)
Nurul Umami (210910016)
TI.a '10
 intellectually; it was recognized that student would probably never use the target language, but the mental exercise of learning it would be beneficial anyway.

B.     THINKING ABOUT THE EXPERIENCE
No
Observations
Principles
1.
The teacher asks students in their native language if they have any questions. A student asks one and is answered in her native language.
The ability to communicate in the target language is not a goal of foreign language instruction.
2.
Students write out the answers to reading comprehension questions.
The primary skills to be developed are reading and writing. Little attention is given to speaking and listening, and almost none to pronunciation.
3.
The teacher decides whether an answer is correct or not. If the answer is incorrect, the teacher selects a different student to supply the correct answer or the teacher herself gives the right answer.
The teacher is the authority in the classroom. It is very important that students get the correct answer.
4.
Students translate new words from English into Spanish.
It is possible to find native language equivalents for all target language words.
5.
Students learn that English “-ty” corresponds to –dad and –tad in Spanish.
Learning is facilitated through attention to similarities between the target language and the native language.
6.
Students are given a grammar rule for the use of a direct object with two-word verbs.
It is important for students to learn about the form of the target language.
7.
Students apply a rule to examples they are given.
Deductive application of an explicit grammar rule is a useful pedagogical technique.
8.
Students memorize vocabulary.
Language learning provides good mental exercise.
9.
The teacher asks students to state the grammar rule.
Students should be conscious of the grammatical rules of the target language.
10.
Students memorize present tense, past tense, and past participle forms of one set of irregular verbs.
Wherever possible, verb conjugations and other grammatical paradigms should be committed to memory.

C. REVIEWING THE PRINCIPLES
  1. What are the goals of teachers who use the Grammar-Translation Method?
According to the teachers who use the Grammar-Translation Method, a fundamental purpose of learning a foreign language is to be able to read literature written in the target language. To do this, students need to learn about the grammar rules and vocabulary of the target language.  
  1. What is the role of the teacher? What is the role of the students?
The roles are very traditional. The teacher is the authority in the classroom. The students do as he says so they can learn what he knows.
  1. What are some characteristics of the teaching/learning process?
Students are taught to translate from one language to another.
  1. What is the nature of student-teacher interaction? What is the nature of student- student interaction?
Most of the interaction in the classroom is from the teacher to the students. There is little student initiation and little student-student interaction.
  1. How are the feelings of the students dealt with?
There are no principles of the method which relate to this area.
  1. How is language viewed? How is culture viewed?
Literary language is considered superior to spoken language and is therefore the language students study. Culture is viewed as consisting of literature and the fine arts.
  1. What areas of language are emphasized? What language skills are emphasized?
Vocabulary and grammar are emphasized. Reading and writing are the primary skills that the students work on. There is much less attention given to speaking and listening. Pronunciation receives little, if any, attention.
  1. What is the role of the students’ native language?
The meaning of the target language is made clear by translating it into the students’ native language, the language that is used in class is mostly the students’ native language.
  1. How is evaluation accomplished?
Written tests in which students are students are asked to translate from their native language to the target language or vice versa are often used.
  1. How does the teacher respond to student errors?
Having the students get the correct answer is considered very important. If students make errors or don’t know an answer, the teacher supplies them with the correct answer.

D. REVIEWING THE TECHNIQUES
1.      Translation of a Literary Passage
2.      Reading Comprehension Questions
3.      Antonyms/Synonyms
4.      Cognates
5.      Deductive Application of Rule
6.      Fill-in-the blanks
7.      Memorization
8.      Use Words in Sentence
9.      Composition

E. CONCLUSION
You have now had an opportunity to examine the principles and some of the techniques of the Grammar-Translation Method. Try to make a connection between what you have understood and your own teaching situation and beliefs

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